What Saith the Scripture?
HOLINESS OF CHRISTIANS IN THE PRESENT LIFE --No. 13
by Charles Grandison Finney
President of Oberlin College
Oberlin Evangelist" Publication of Oberlin College
August 16, 1843
Public Domain Text
Reformatted by Katie Stewart
Text.--Gal. 5:1:"Stand fast,
therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled
again with the yoke of bondage."
In this lecture I shall show,
I. What is intended by the yoke of bondage.
II. What it is to be entangled with it.
III. What is the liberty here spoken of.
IV. How Christ makes us free.
V. The danger of becoming entangled again.
VI. When Christians are in bondage.
VII. What is their remedy.
I. What is intended by the yoke of bondage.
The Apostle had immediately under his eye, the ceremonial law of the Jews. This is
evident from the whole context. Judaizing teachers had come in, and were trying to
ingraft the cumbersome observances of the Jewish ritual upon the gospel. This the
Apostle was so grieved at, and felt to be such a departure from Christ, that he declared
they were fallen from grace in complying with such instruction. But it was not simply
because he rejected the ceremonial law, and regarded it as useless, that the Apostle
thus resisted the observance of it, but because he had his eye on a principle of
the last importance to the Church. Why was the ceremonial law a yoke of bondage?
Because it had no tendency to reform the heart, and thus render its own observance
a matter of choice. Any precept given us, contrary to the state of mind in which
we are, is a yoke of bondage. And this is true, whether it be a precept of the Old
or New Testament. The principle is universal. You may see it in the conduct of children.
Impose some requirement upon them, contrary to the state of their hearts and you
will never fail to see that their obedience is not cheerful, but constrained--a mere
servitude. Every requirement, then, the spirit of which we have not, is to us a yoke
II. What it is to be entangled with it.
- 1. To see a rule of duty, and feel our obligation to comply with it, and yet
have no heart to enter into the spirit of it, is certainly to be entangled with a
yoke of bondage. The obligation presses on the one hand, and the heart rejects it
on the other, and the condition is one of restless distraction. The law given at
Mount Sinai, was a galling yoke for this reason. The Apostle says--"it gendereth
to bondage." Previous to a distinct perception of its claims, men may not be
aware of its influence. Paul says--"For I was alive without the law once, but
when the commandment came, sin revived and I died." Seeing the thing it required,
to be duty, and yet having no heart to perform it, it was a snare unto him. You can
easily see how it was. Let anybody be practising any injurious indulgence ignorantly,
and there is no sin in it; but let light be thrown into his mind on the subject,
and the true nature of the indulgence made known to him, and that moment the struggle
commences. Before, he could practice it without compunction, but now his conscience
is awake; his appetite still demands it, and the more clearly he sees the law, so
much the more is he entangled, until his heart goes fully with the requirement.
- 2. To take pains to conform to the letter of a law, while destitute of its spirit,
is to be entangled. A great many persons set themselves with great punctiliousness,
to keep every point of the law, and yet, after all, never feel themselves any better
off. Why is this? Because it is mere letter service; there is no heart in it; and
the more of such service is rendered, the more exacting is conscience, and the farther
is the mind from peace.
- 3. To strive to satisfy the demands either of the law, the gospel, or the conscience,
without faith and love, is to be entangled. The case supposed in the 7th of Romans,
represents an individual as setting himself to obey the moral law without its spirit,
and the result was a perfect failure. The same is true of persons setting themselves
to obey the gospel, without its spirit. They are like a man in a horrible pit of
miry clay. Every effort towards obedience, only seems to render them less disposed
to obey, and to create greater enmity to the service. The same is true of all attempts
to satisfy the demands of conscience, while the heart reluctates from the service.
- 4. To undertake and assume responsibilities to which we are not equal, that is,
to undertake to do any thing in our own strength, is to be entangled. Let an individual
go about any duty, or assume any responsibility without the spirit of it, and in
his own strength, that is, by dint of his own resolutions, without faith, and he
will find himself the more entangled, the farther he goes, just as long as this is
- 5. Covenants, vows, promises, &c., where Christ is not consulted and depended
upon, only serve to entangle the soul. Sometimes, persons write down covenants of
the most solemn and binding character, with the design to hedge themselves in, so
that they will not dare to sin, but it does no good, and only brings the soul under
a more dire condemnation.
- 6. Undertaking to do or to be any thing to which the spirit of Christ does not
lead you. No matter whether this is obligatory on you or not, if you undertake it
without love, it will only be a snare. Thus the law "gendereth to bondage."
III. What is the liberty here spoken of.
- 1. The word liberty is used in two senses.
- (1.) As opposed to necessity. In this sense, it consists in the power to choose
or refuse any object of choice.
- (2.) As opposed to slavery. Slavery is not, as some have supposed, a state of
involuntary servitude, for strictly speaking, there is no such thing. Every act the
slave performs, is really as voluntary as the act of any other man. His muscles would
not move without will. Slavery is a state, in which a man feels constrained to choose
between what he regards as two evils. He selects between two alternatives, both of
which he abhors. He knows he must labor or be whipped, and he prefers labor to suffering,
as the least of two evils. Slavery then, is where a person feels himself shut up
to take a course, which on the whole, he does not love, but which he takes rather
than to do worse. For example, a person in the marriage state without love, may discharge
the outward duties of that relation during life, rather than to separate and sustain
all the evils attendant on such a course. So a person may live under a government
which he abhors, and yet, rather than subject himself to its frown, may meet all
its requisitions. This is acting on the principle of slavery. A person might be compelled
to act on the principle of slavery here in New York, as absolutely as in the South,
and may as much abhor the service. The difference between one here and one there,
is, that there he fears the lash or some other physical infliction, while here, he
fears some other evil, which is equally efficient, as he views it, to drive him to
the abhorred tasks. Legal professors are slaves in this sense. Their duties are not
something which they love, but which must be attended to, or a greater evil endured.
Their service is not performed from a love to the end for which it is required, but
as the only way to escape the rebukes of conscience, or the wrath of God.
- 2. This liberty is that of faith and love. When persons come to love, then they
delight in acts of love as a matter of course. So much are they free that in obeying
God, they do only, what they on the whole, prefer to do, and what they would do whether
there was any command or not, could they only see its relation to the good of the
- 3. In short, this liberty is benevolence. It consists, not in the annihilation
of obligation, but in possessing the Spirit of the requirement. Turn to the 13th
chapter of the first Corinthians, and mark the characteristics of love which the
Apostle there lays down. "Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth
not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly,
seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity,
but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all
things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth; but whether there be prophecies
they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge,
it shall vanish away." This description of charity or benevolence, shows that
the free man naturally acts according to the requirement. It is spontaneous with
him. He acts from a principle within himself rather than from a law without. He does
not act from restraint, but obedience is with him, what it was with Christ. Christ
did not need the sanctions of the law to induce obedience, but what the precept required,
was just what, above all other things, he loved to do. So it is with those who are
in this liberty. They do not act under the rod.
- 4. They are not governed by authority, but act spontaneously, from choice. They
only need to know what will please God, and they do it willingly and of a ready mind.
They do not neglect to do what is required of them, but they do it from love, and
that is the perfection of liberty. When a man is able to choose in any direction
in all circumstances, and does just what he has a mind to, that is the highest liberty
in the universe. That is freedom in its highest sense.
IV. How Christ makes us free.
- 1. Not by abolishing the moral law.
- 2. Not by discharging us from any obligation to fulfill any or every duty.
- 3. Nor by relaxing the claims of any moral precept, in either the Old or New
- 4. But as it respects the ceremonial law, He fulfilled and abolished it, so that
nobody is under farther obligation to obey it.
- 5. And as it respects the moral law, He makes us free by writing its principle,
and all its spirit in our hearts. And what a sweet way this is! Suppose we should
thus govern our children. What delightful families we should have. All our commands
the very thing they chose, so that for us to intimate our will, would be to see it
sweetly done. When Christ begets the spirit of the law in us, and then shows us the
outward precept, the precept is just what we are pre-disposed to do, and of course
it will be done by us cheerfully.
- 6. He makes us free by making the course of conduct prescribed in the whole Bible,
as natural and spontaneous as it is with Himself; and therefore, we are free in the
same sense that He is free, and that all in heaven are free. God, no doubt, feels
bound to be benevolent, but his will is just what his infinite reason requires, and
He is, therefore, infinitely free, and so is the Lord Jesus Christ. This is just
the freedom He seeks to bestow on us.
- 7. He accomplishes this by his indwelling Spirit. He comes to reside in us, that
He may beget in us the same state of mind there is in Christ, whom it is his office
to exhibit to us.
- 8. He does it by so revealing Christ to us, as to gain the implicit confidence
and affection of the soul. It is not accomplished by any physical force. How do we,
if we want to get the confidence of persons, exhibit to them such views of our character
as to win their confidence and love. So Christ, by revealing Himself in those traits
of his character, which He knows are adapted to win the confidence of men, brings
them into the same state of mind with Himself. He shows them that He is love, well
knowing that this is the readiest way to make them love. There is no other way to
make men benevolent. Weep yourself, if you want others to weep. Suppose a father
is benevolent, and he wants to make his children so too. How can he do it? By using
the rod? Or drilling them in the catechism? No. But by acting it out before them.
One great reason why the children of professedly religious parents are so seldom
converted is because the parents so constantly command them, without sufficient manifestations
of benevolence. They are commanded to read the Bible, to go to Sabbath School, to
get their tasks in such a way, that it becomes irksome to them, instead of attractive
and interesting. Let parents only temper all their commands sufficiently with benevolence,
and it would not be so. It is thus that Christ wins the hearts of sinners, and makes
them free. When He came, the idea of true religion was almost lost in the world,
but He acted it out in his whole life. His disciples looked on and wondered, till
finally they caught the flame. And what then? Why they shook the world with it. And
it is the exhibition of this spirit alone, which can consummate the victory, and
liberate our race. It is thus He makes us free from the yoke of bondage--from obligation
to keep the ceremonial law--from the penalty of the moral law--from the spirit of
bondage, by writing his law in our hearts--from the dominion of sin and from the
power of the world, the flesh, and the devil. This is the glorious liberty wherewith
Christ makes his people free.
V. The danger of becoming entangled again.
- 1. The least unbelief brings bondage. Let a wife lose confidence in her husband
in any respect, and in that respect, her obedience will be constrained and stiff.
So it is in religion. If there is any want of confidence, instead of your service
being free and out-gushing, it will be forced and heartless.
- 2. Grieving the Holy Spirit will beget bondage. Whenever He withdraws his presence
from the mind, then it falls right into bondage.
- 3. Admitting the least selfishness, naturally leads into bondage. Observe, religion
is benevolence. The least selfishness, then, is bondage of course.
- 4. Any abstraction of the mind from Christ, of course begets bondage. No person,
as a matter of fact, lives a spiritual life without Christ. We must feed on Him.
We need Him as much as we do our natural food. We maintain our liberty only by thinking
on Him, and communing with Him continually.
- 5. Any attempts to coerce the mind by oaths, vows, covenants, and resolutions,
beget bondage. If a man has the Spirit of Christ, he does not need these, and if
he has not, he can never get it in this way. I have known persons to pray all night,
and screw themselves up to the most solemn vows and covenants which they could frame,
and yet it availed nothing. There was no religion in it; not an atom. And when persons
attempt to coerce themselves in this way, they universally fail of success.
- 6. Taking upon your conscience, an obligation to conform to any particular forms
and ceremonies not prescribed by Christ. It is truly astonishing to see what an excess
the Jews loaded themselves down, in adhering to what they supposed were the requirements
of the ceremonial law. They multiplied days, and traditions, and tithes, and purifications,
almost without end. So it has been in the Church of Rome. She multiplied her vows,
and pilgrimages, and fasts, to such an extent as could result in nothing else but
a mere outside show, and work the destruction of souls. Even undertaking to conform
with those that are required, in your own strength, is enough to bring any soul into
- 7. But the multiplying of holy days, and religious observances and ceremonies,
cannot result in any thing else. Even among Protestants, how many regard it as a
duty, to observe Christmas. I have been afraid our Methodist brethren were becoming
entangled. They seem to consider it a duty to watch out the old year, and in the
new, and no matter whether sleepy or not, they must be there to satisfy both custom
and conscience. Even monthly concerts come to be a yoke. The truth is, we are bound
to resist such things, whenever they come to be regarded as binding on the conscience.
These holy days in the Romish Church, became so numerous as to take up a great part
of the time, and now, in many of the Catholic countries, if you employ a man to work,
you get but very little out of him.
- 8. Binding yourselves by church covenants, especially if there is any thing in
them contrary to the law of reason and of love. We hear of no such thing in the Apostles'
days. The truth is, I am jealous of them. One embraces one thing, and another, another;
and the first thing you know, you are reined up. "Why you are a violator of
your covenant." Am I? "Yes." I have known several cases of this kind.
Let no one be bound but by the law of love, which is the perfect law of liberty.
VI. When Christians are in bondage.
- 1. When the duties of religion are a burden. While we are in liberty, they are
no burden. As an old writer says--"I sought all nature through, to find something
like the burden of Christ, and could find nothing till I came to the pinions of the
dove, which instead of weighing down, bear up the soul on high."
- 2. When the form is observed, without the spirit and power of godliness. Many
have, and keep up the form very scrupulously, when the life and spirit have gone.
But their piety is like a mere lifeless corpse, or hollow shell.
- 3. When driven by conscience, instead of being drawn by love. Oh, how many are
attempting to live by mere resolutions forced up by conscience, without one particle
of love to Christ!
- 4. When they don't find their heart spontaneously doing what is required. When
the waters of life do not flow spontaneously out from them--when it is not nature's
promptings to pray, to give to the poor, or perform any other duty. When persons
have the spirit of religion, instead of needing a command, they feel an inward going
of the soul in the right direction, and the performance of duty gives them sweet
- 5. When the soul has no peace, and no enjoyment in religion, it is under the
yoke of bondage. True liberty, is essential peace and blessedness.
VII. What is their remedy.
- 1. Persons will never get into liberty by any legal, heartless efforts. That
is beginning exactly at the wrong end; it is beginning on the outside to work inward,
instead of beginning at the inside to work outward. People often become prodigiously
excited, and go to doing, doing, doing, under the pressure of obligation; but where
is the relief? This is particularly the case in many protracted meetings and special
efforts, but when the meetings stop, where is their religion in a vast number of
cases? I am not saying any thing against such meetings, but against the manner in
which the truth is too often preached, and the meeting conducted. The process is
just such as to set the sensibility all on fire with powerful excitement, and leave
the heart unsubdued to love. This is all wrong, and only adapted to foster mere heartless
- 2. But the only remedy is faith in Christ, and application to his blood. "This
is the work of God, that ye believe on Him whom He hath sent." Cast the whole
soul upon Him, to receive the spirit of obedience. I have often seen persons striving
and pushing for months, but all to no purpose. They were not one whit better, and
it was not till they saw that it would not make them better if they should continue
thus a thousand years, and until they cast themselves wholly on Christ, to receive
the spirit of obedience from Him, that they entered into gospel liberty. "Come
unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my
yoke upon you, and learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart; and ye shall find
rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light."
1. You may see from this subject, the difference between a legal and a gospel religion.
A legal religion is works without love, a gospel religion, works by love. A brother
said the other day, he did not understand this distinction. Why it is obvious as
the distinction between day and night. Both the true Christian and the legalist works,
but the one works with, the other without love. They both do the same things outwardly,
but the one is free and the other a slave in the performance.
2. See why the moral law is called the perfect law of liberty. It was ordained to
life, and when obeyed in its spirit, gives life. But why do persons find it unto
death? Because when the spirit is lost, the letter kills. It is when it is legally,
that is, heartlessly obeyed, that it works our overthrow instead of our deliverance.
3. See what is intended by such passages as Gal. 5:18, "But if ye be led by
the Spirit, ye are not under the law;" and Rom. 6:14, "For sin shall not
have dominion over you; for ye are not under the law, but under grace." It is
not intended that the law is abolished, but that its spirit has become their law.
They are not under it in such a sense as to need its sanctions to press them up to
4. Many feel that their religion is mere slavery--a hard, up-hill business. The language
of their heart is, "it is hard to obey, and harder still to love." But
they are ignorant of the true nature of religion. It is the easiest thing in the
world to him that has it. Legalists complain about this world, that it is such a
bad one, so hard to live in, and keep right. But it is not such a hard world as they
think. Religion certainly does not make it any harder, but altogether easier. The
difficulty with those who find it such a hard world, is, that their hearts are bad,
and if they find it a severe task to obey God, it is because they have not the spirit
of obedience. If they have any religion it is of the wrong kind, and they are entirely
deceived if they think all others have the same kind that they have. Some persons,
when they see others joyful, say they are deceived. They don't feel so themselves,
and they wonder how any body can. And then they point to the seventh chapter of Romans,
or to David Brainerd, who, although a good man, was so hypochondriacal that his experience
would be gloomy as a matter of course. Such persons are always suspicious whenever
they see any of the spirit of liberty manifested, and I don't wonder, for mankind
are naturally suspicious of those beyond themselves. How strange it must appear to
them, and how it must stumble them to see persons almost dance for joy when they
emerge from bondage, and yet this in not wonderful. Why, see that slave, with his
back all blistered in the sun, set free. Is it strange that he should leap and bound
about with fulness of joy? It is thus that Christians feel, and the Bible commands
them to rejoice; but legalists don't understand it, and think they are possessed
of the devil. Why, I have sometimes heard persons say, "That's not solemn--its
fanaticism." And then they turn to some gloomy slave with a dead body strapped
on his back, and groaning under his burden, and say--"That's the humble one--he's
none of your visionaries!"
5. Multitudes have no true idea of gospel liberty. They have made a credible profession
of religion, and are toiling out its duties, but what liberty means they know not--and
perhaps they are even ministers of the gospel! Of course, such persons don't expect
liberty. I recently heard of a revival, in which the minister said to inquirers,
"don't expect to be happy in this world; I never was, nor do I expect to be
until I get to heaven. I don't know what it is to have enjoyment in religion."
Now there is a fundamental error in such instruction. Not happy! Had I been present
where such instruction was given, I would have told that minister that he was not
a converted man if that was his experience. It is thus that a legal religion is inculcated
on converts, by legal ministers and legal professors. But how many persons are just
here--afraid to find any other way, for fear it will lead to delusion! O, that it
might be seen that a religion which does not produce present peace and blessedness,
is not, of course, a religion of love, and is therefore false.
6. Any course of instruction that presses duty without holding up Christ, is like
requiring labor without food and brings into bondage. It is like requiring the Israelites
to make brick without straw, and those who give such instruction are obliged to whip,
and scourge, and abuse the dear Church of God to get the little service they do out
of them. Hold up duty without Christ and legality is inevitable. They are starved
for want of Christ. But let them see Christ and they will work, of course, as duty
is appropriately enforced.
7. It is the other extreme to hold up Christ without calling to duty, and begets
antinomianism. To feed the Church with Christ and leave them inactive, is the way
to produce a religious dyspepsia. But give us the right food and work enough to do,
and then we will thrive. Only let us have the bread that cometh down from heaven,
and we shall have spiritual health, and even physical health, if we only have work
enough to keep us busy.
8. If we may believe the confessions of the great mass of professors, they are in
bondage. This fact has weighed on my mind for a long time. I labored to convert sinners
for many years, but saw them fall, under the legal instruction of ministers, into
bondage. I labored and prayed for them night and day, and do now, and yet they seem
to know little of liberty. They often, by their looks, seem to ask, "Is this
Christianity?" "Is this the boasted religion of Christ?" "Wherein
does it differ from the Jew's religion?" A man said to me once with great honesty,
although in vulgar language, "The gospel is not what it is cracked up to be."
His idea was that the gospel promised liberty, but did not confer it. Now how many
would say just so, if they would tell their hearts. They would say "the gospel
is not what the Apostle said it was." Yes, poor soul, it is, but you have not
got it. Taste and see. Come to the gospel feast. You have compassed that mountain
long enough. Don't expect Christ to make you free while you turn your back on Him.
9. When the power of religion is gone, the form but hardens the heart, and makes
men more pharisaical and hypocritical every day. What, you say, would you have a
man do? Cast off his profession, and stop prayer, and go back to the world? No, but
love and serve in the spirit. But if you will not do this, then give up your profession,
that is my advice. Do you doubt whether God would rather have you give up your profession,
than live in mere form, and heartless obedience? "I would thou wert cold or
hot. So then because thou art luke-warm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee
out of my mouth." How loathsome to Him are the mockeries, and slavish obedience
to his holy will! The text represents Christ as actually vomiting them up. Now I
would not recommend apostacy but condemn hypocrisy, and bring you to Christ.
10. None really understand this liberty but those who have experienced it, and those
who have experienced it cannot find language to express it.
11. Many exclaim against antinomianism who are mere legalists, while both these characters
are an abomination to God.
12. When the shepherds attempt to drive instead of lead the flock, they lay a snare
before them. We cannot make people love by whipping, scolding, and driving them.
God has given his law with its sanctions, but He opens his blessed heart to beget
love. Dearly beloved, are any of you in bondage? Have you left your first love? Did
somebody tell you that you must go down into the valley of humiliation, and did you
go? Alas! what a mistake! When you should have gone up to the mountain by faith.
What is true humility? Will you return to your first love? And will you "commit
the keeping of your souls to Him in well doing as unto a faithful Creator?"
Let us all go to Christ to receive our liberty.
of easily misunderstood terms as defined by Mr. Finney himself.
Compiled by Katie Stewart
- Complacency, or Esteem: "Complacency, as a state of will or heart,
is only benevolence modified by the consideration or relation of right character
in the object of it. God, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and saints, in all ages, are
as virtuous in their self-denying and untiring labours to save the wicked, as they
are in their complacent love to the saints." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
VII). Also, "approbation of the character of its object. Complacency is
due only to the good and holy." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE
- Disinterested Benevolence: "By disinterested benevolence I do not
mean, that a person who is disinterested feels no interest in his object of pursuit,
but that he seeks the happiness of others for its own sake, and not for the sake
of its reaction on himself, in promoting his own happiness. He chooses to do good
because he rejoices in the happiness of others, and desires their happiness for its
own sake. God is purely and disinterestedly benevolent. He does not make His creatures
happy for the sake of thereby promoting His own happiness, but because He loves their
happiness and chooses it for its own sake. Not that He does not feel happy in promoting
the happiness of His creatures, but that He does not do it for the sake of His own
gratification." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE I).
- Divine Sovereignty: "The sovereignty of God consists in the independence
of his will, in consulting his own intelligence and discretion, in the selection
of his end, and the means of accomplishing it. In other words, the sovereignty of
God is nothing else than infinite benevolence directed by infinite knowledge."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXVI).
- Election: "That all of Adam's race, who are or ever will be saved,
were from eternity chosen by God to eternal salvation, through the sanctification
of their hearts by faith in Christ. In other words, they are chosen to salvation
by means of sanctification. Their salvation is the end- their sanctification is a
means. Both the end and the means are elected, appointed, chosen; the means as really
as the end, and for the sake of the end." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXIV).
- Entire Sanctification: "Sanctification may be entire in two senses:
(1.) In the sense of present, full obedience, or entire consecration to God; and,
(2.) In the sense of continued, abiding consecration or obedience to God. Entire
sanctification, when the terms are used in this sense, consists in being established,
confirmed, preserved, continued in a state of sanctification or of entire consecration
to God." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LVIII).
- Moral Agency: "Moral agency is universally a condition of moral obligation.
The attributes of moral agency are intellect, sensibility, and free will." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE III).
- Moral Depravity: "Moral depravity is the depravity of free-will,
not of the faculty itself, but of its free action. It consists in a violation of
moral law. Depravity of the will, as a faculty, is, or would be, physical, and not
moral depravity. It would be depravity of substance, and not of free, responsible
choice. Moral depravity is depravity of choice. It is a choice at variance with moral
law, moral right. It is synonymous with sin or sinfulness. It is moral depravity,
because it consists in a violation of moral law, and because it has moral character."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Human Reason: "the intuitive faculty or function of the intellect...
it is the faculty that intuits moral relations and affirms moral obligation to act
in conformity with perceived moral relations." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
- Retributive Justice: "Retributive justice consists in treating every
subject of government according to his character. It respects the intrinsic merit
or demerit of each individual, and deals with him accordingly." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE XXXIV).
- Total Depravity: "Moral depravity of the unregenerate is without
any mixture of moral goodness or virtue, that while they remain unregenerate, they
never in any instance, nor in any degree, exercise true love to God and to man."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Unbelief: "the soul's withholding confidence from truth and the God
of truth. The heart's rejection of evidence, and refusal to be influenced by it.
The will in the attitude of opposition to truth perceived, or evidence presented."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LV).
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