||delphia > Awaking from The Sleep of Spiritual Death by Charles G. Finney from "The Oberlin Evangelist"
Awaking from The Sleep of Spiritual Death
Charles G. Finney
A Voice from the Philadelphian Church Age
by Charles Grandison Finney
Public Domain Text
Reformatted by Katie Stewart
from "The Oberlin Evangelist"
September 24, 1851
AWAKING FROM THE SLEEP OF SPIRITUAL DEATH
by the Rev. C. G. Finney
"Awake, thou that sleepest, and arise from the
dead, and Christ shall give thee light."
This text and the subject it presents will lead me to discuss the following points,
in the order stated.
I. What is this death?
II. Why is it called death; who caused it, and who was the occasion of it?
III. The nature of the resurrection spoken of; as agencies and instruments;
IV. The reasons for the appeal--"Arise from the dead."
I. What this death is.
- 1. This Epistle, chapter 2:1, gives us a safe and satisfactory answer. "And
you hath He quickened (that is, made alive,) who were dead in trespasses and sins."
This shows what sort of death is contemplated--a death in sin. The general scope
of the Epistle shows that the apostle is conceiving of the state of lost sinners,
fearfully depraved, as being dead; that is, he uses the term, death, by a figure
of speech, to denote their terrible apathy on the subject of their guilt and danger,
and their fearful condition as exposed to the curse of God. A careful attention to
the scope of this epistle will show this most fully.
- 2. Let it not be understood that this death is a state of perfect unconsciousness--by
no means; nor is it a state in which all power of voluntary action is destroyed or
even suspended; but it is a state in which no right moral action takes place. It
is death in trespasses and sins.
- 3. We may revert to Rom. 8:6, for a more specific description of this spiritual
death. In this passage Paul says--"To be carnally-minded is death, but to be
spiritually-minded is life and peace." The precise sense of the original is
this; "The minding of the flesh is death;" the giving up of the mind to
the demands of the flesh is utter ruin to the soul; because, says verse 7, "the
minding of the flesh is enmity against God," and this enmity against God at
once constitutes a state of spiritual death and must of course prove the eternal
ruin of the soul.
- 4. Reverting again to the train of thought and illustration pursued in Paul to
the Ephesians, we read;--"You hath He quickened, who were dead in trespasses
and sins; wherein in time passed ye walked according to the course of this world,
according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the
children of disobedience: among whom also we all had our conversation in times past
in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and
were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy,
for His great love wherewith He loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened
us together with Christ: (by grace are ye saved:) and hath raised us up together,
and made us sit together in heavenly places, in Christ Jesus,"
- 5. This death, therefore, as we see, is a death in sin--not one in which the
mind is sunk into utter inactivity--not a state in which no action is possible; but
simply one in which the mind acts, and the individual "walks according to the
course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air"--the
same Satanic agency which energizes in all those who are disobedient to God. It is
a death unto God, and to His character and claims. The dead sinner is regardless
of God and of God's rightful authority as one physically dead is unconscious of what
passes around him; he is borne to his grave, but he knows not by whom;--so the spiritually
dead are voluntarily insensible to the great facts of the spiritual world--insensible
to God, to truth, and to their own relations to both. They may be intensely alive
to the things of the natural world, to everything relating to earthly pleasure; but
to God and duty, they are dead.
- 6. This state, then, is called death figuratively, and yet so accurately does
it describe the sinner's real case that it can scarcely be called a figure.
II. I am next to inquire, Who caused this death; and what is its occasion?
The nature of the death spoken of, will readily answer both questions. By its very
nature, it consists in being governed by the desires of the flesh and of the mind.
It is being under the dominion of the appetites and passions. In language more strictly
accurate, it consists in the mind's giving itself up to obey the demands of appetite
and passion in opposition to the counter demands of reason, conscience, and God.
- 1. And now I ask, Who caused this death? If sinners are dead, who has killed
them? Are they suicides, or has somebody else killed them? This is a vital question
in our subject.
- (1.) I am aware that sinners are wont to regard their depravity as their calamity
and not their fault--but this point needs to be carefully considered, and thoroughly
searched out. We shall have a clue to its real merits if we push the question--Who
is it that has killed the sinner?
- (2.) And yet when this question is pushed, there are some who will say--No matter
who killed me if I am really dead. But this is by no means true or just. No suicide
can stand up before God and claim that it matters not who caused his death; that
it must be overlooked as his misfortune and not regarded as his fault.
- (3.) Now the sinner's death is clearly proved to be a case of suicide. For, by
the very nature of his death, nobody else could have caused it--no agency in the
universe can be the cause of it but himself. For the cause of the death lies in his
own voluntary action. He of his own free choice yields up himself to the demands
of his appetites. He himself voluntarily chooses selfish good before and instead
of God and of the universe, which is the very death of which we speak. In this and
in this only consists his death in sin. He has made this fatal choice of pleasing
self and displeasing God, not only through all the past years of his moral activity,
but is making it at the present moment. In other words, he not only killed himself
when he first began to act morally, but he has been repeating his suicidal acts ever
since, and is repeating them even now. Now, even today, his own moral activities
are altogether suicidal, so that if he had never killed himself before, the voluntary
sin of this day would be the murder of his soul.
- 2. The things I now affirm follow inevitably from the very nature of moral, voluntary
action. No one compels a sinner to love himself more than he loves God; no one compels
him to follow his own propensities, instead of obeying the voice of his reason and
his conscience. No one man ever killed another in the sense of spiritual death; no
man ever did or ever can sin for another so that his sin shall be the death spiritually
of his neighbor. One man may entice another to sin; may tempt him--may lead him along
into sinning; this is only being the occasion; and when we ask for the occasion of
the sinner's spiritual death, much may be said about the agency of others. No doubt
much is to be ascribed to the influences which occasion sin; but occasion and cause
are entirely distinct and should never be confounded together. The cause is the acting
agent who sins; the occasion may be any influence from other agents, acting upon
the sensibilities of his being, appealing to his appetites and passions, and presenting
inducements to wrong moral action.
- (1.) The cause of an event or act is the efficient power which does it. It always
implies the exercise of force or power, adequate to the production of the effect.
Now with this meaning of the terms before our minds, we see that the only cause of
sin must be the sinner's own voluntary powers of choice. No other being can compel
him to sin; if the thing were possible, the sin when committed would not be his own
sin, but the sin of the compelling power. Just as in physical death, you may tempt
your neighbor to suicide; if in his sane mind he commits it, though under your temptation,
it is suicide; he has killed himself, and however great your guilt, he is still the
guilty cause of his own death. So of all temptations to sin. They are the occasion
of sin, and sin never takes place without occasion. There must be something presented
to the sinner's mind as an inducement which leads him to choose selfishly. All sin
is choice which the sinner makes and persists in--choice of the good hoped for in
disobeying God before the good promised in obeying. These temptations are various.
Adam's first sin became the occasion of great sin to his race--very great sin;--of
this there can be no doubt. So all the intemperance that has ever existed has made
the appetite more clamorous, for by a law of our physical constitution, the habits
of the parent affect his constitution, and his constitution affects that of his offspring.
Thus the effects of Adamis sin have passed over upon all his race.
- (2.) Whether if Adam had not sinned, any or all of his race would have sinned,
I do not know. Some men have thought themselves very wise on this subject; but the
Bible states this fact, that Adam's sin has occasioned the sin of all of his race.
This is all the Bible affirms on this point. It does not at all assume to show what
would have been the course of things in our race if Adam had not sinned. The Bible
has however taught us one other fact about sin, namely, that all sin is transgression
of law, and of course it implies intelligence of law, and voluntary action in stepping
over it. And indeed, our own consciousness affirms that all sin is voluntary action.
It can therefore be of no use to us to speculate upon Adam's sin, and upon what
would have been, or might have been, if Adam had never sinned. It is enough to know
that all sin is voluntary--that temptation can only be an occasion and never a cause;
and hence that however much culpability may attach to the tempter, enough of the
guilt of sin will always rest upon the sinner himself to crush him under its fearful
- (3.) I repeat and wish it to be borne carefully in mind that this death is spiritual,
not physical; and essentially consists in a voluntary subjection of the whole being
to the demands of self-gratification. The voluntary agent gives himself up to the
indulgence of self in just those respects in which God commands him to deny himself;
that is, he goes into self-indulgence where the divine law commands him to please
God and not self--or to benefit his neighbor instead of seeking to engross all benefit
- 3. Now it is a radically essential element in this state of mind that it is voluntary.
It can never be forced. It can never be the direct and proper effect of causation
exercised by another being. If it were, we could not call it sin in the subject of
such force. If any man could be made, despite of himself, to do acts which are in
their own nature sinful, they could not be sin in him. This is too obvious to need
proof. There is therefore no such thing as forced sin--sin done by me which another
being caused and compelled, despite of my resistance.
Again, the death spoken of is not what some have designated original sin. Many
old divines hold that there is such a thing as original sin, which however is not
transgression of law--is not voluntary action of any sort, but is a certain sinfulness
in the very substance of the soul. They hold that all the faculties, parts and powers
of the soul are sinful; and this sinfulness they call original sin.
This however is not God's teaching, but man's. It is taught in human creeds and catechisms;
not in the Bible. When the Bible comes to speak of man's death in sin, all is made
plain, as in our context, and in its parallel passages. The whole of the matter is
that man of his own free will gives himself up voluntarily to self-pleasing. The
Bible fastens the guilt of this state and of all its moral activities directly upon
the voluntary action of the sinning agent--not upon his created powers but upon his
voluntary exercise of his powers--not upon the substance of his soul as created,
but upon his own responsible action after he has been created.
It is wonderful that man should have represented this death as consisting in original
sin as I have described it, while the Bible so plainly describes it as a voluntary
minding of the flesh,--and as a "walking after the course of this world."
Everywhere the Bible fastens the guilt of sin upon man's voluntary rebellion against
God's claims. "They have loved idols." "They will not frame their
doings to turn unto the Lord." They say unto God,--"depart from us for
we desire not the knowledge of Thy ways."
Again, if the Bible had taught original sin as some divines have taught it, the human
intelligence could never have received it. If the Bible had affirmed that this death
is not voluntary, but consists in a created nature, no man could rationally admit
it. What other position could an intelligent man take under this doctrine than that
which a friend of mine once took. His mind had been filled with the notion that Adam's
first sin had been imputed to all his posterity and to himself among the rest; and
that consequently he came into existence with a nature itself sinful; -- What could
he do therefore but reject these doctrines, even though he must reject the Bible
with them? He was told that this original sin, committed not by himself but by Adam,
became in him a death, in producing which he had no agency, and yet was condemned
for it to an eternal hell. How could his intelligence admit this! He was told that
from this death in sin he must rise at once, although he had no more power to do
it than he had to move a world;--what could he do with such a demand!
I found him rejecting the Bible. I asked him why he should do this? He answered me--Because
I know it is not true.
But said I to him--what do you mean? He explained. "The Bible says that man
came into the world, all sin--every faculty sinful--the faculties themselves actual
sin; and then it holds that God commands me to come out of this state on pain of
damnation, although, at the same time, He knows that I have no more power to do it
than to create a world. Now such being the teaching of the Bible, I know that the
God who made my mind never made that book."
Such language will perhaps shock many of you, yet it is only the simple statement
of facts. In reply, he was told that the notions he had justly deemed so absurd were
not God's teachings but man's. I assured him those things were drawn from human creeds
and catechisms, not from the Bible. He was confounded, and thrown at once utterly
out of his position of infidelity. He saw that he had been rejecting the Bible for
reasons which had no basis in the real teachings of that book. In the issue of this
reaction upon his mind you will rejoice to learn that on that very day he was converted
- 4. And now, beloved, if you would reach the truth on this great matter of the
sinner's spiritual death, you must compare scripture with scripture. You must resort
to scripture to explain itself. Pursuing this method you learn that this death is
a minding of the flesh, a walking after the flesh, and consequently a self inflicted
death--a death of voluntary opposition to God because it is a voluntary consecration
of self to sin.
III. The nature of the resurrection here spoken of, may be learned from the
nature of the death to which it stands opposed.
- 1. It is arising from the state of death described. Of course the rising must
correspond to the death. Since therefore the death in question consists in a voluntary
devotion to sin, involving a moral stupor, and an intense dislike of God and of His
claims; so the rising from such a death must be a voluntary rising of the mind to
a sense of its responsibilities to God and a voluntary placing of itself under God's
influence, in the attitude of obedience and submission.
- 2. As to the nature of the agency employed in this resurrection, the Bible refers
much of it to the Spirit of God, and no doubt with the utmost truth. Yet this like
many other truths has been woefully abused, for many, observing how much is ascribed
to this agency, have maintained that this agent does all the work and man himself
nothing. A writer not long since attempted to prove that the work of spiritual resurrection
and regeneration is wrought of God. To this it was replied that this statement tells
but half the truth; for the Bible ascribes this work to the influence of revealed
truth as often and as fully as it ascribes it to the divine Spirit. The Bible also
ascribes it to man, for instance to Paul, who himself says, "I have begotten
you through the gospel." And finally, it ascribes the work to the sinner himself.
- 3. Now, what if I should adopt the same method of proof as the writer alluded
to, and try to show that this work is done by man himself and cite my proof texts
and stop there. Or suppose I labor to prove that the work is wrought by the influence
of other men, by gospel ministers, for instance;--cite my proof texts and stop there;
or that it is done by revealed truth;--then cite my proofs and pretend that I have
exhausted the subject, and stop there. Now plainly these methods of presenting the
subject all stop, having given but a part of the truth in the case. They none of
them present a full view of the Bible teachings on this subject. According to the
Bible, there is always a combination of agencies, the Spirit, the truth, other men,
and the agent or sinner himself.
- 4. The manner in which divine and human agencies cooperate in this spiritual
resurrection we may never be able fully to explain, yet there are many things in
the Bible which may throw light upon it. Take the case of healing the impotent man,
Acts 3. Peter fixing his eyes upon the cripple said--"In the name of Jesus Christ
of Nazareth, rise up and walk," Forthwith, the cripple begins to make effort;
Peter takes him by the right hand to lift him up; his feet and ankle bones receive
strength; then he, leaping up, stood, and then walked. Here was a real miracle--a
supernatural exertion of physical power, yet with it, there was also an exercise
of the mind and of the muscular powers of the subject. So when Christ came to the
grave of Lazarus, and cried with a loud voice--"Lazarus come forth;" immediately
there was motion where all was the stillness of death before. When this voice rang
in his ear, he started up and came forth. These were indeed physical changes, but
they may serve to illustrate the change that takes place when God says to a dead
sinner, Come forth. Before this, God's servants could not get the sinner's attention.
Every sense seemed locked up in the sleep of spiritual death. He heard not until
God spake. When others spake to him he seemed to hear as a man will sometimes hear
the cry of fire in his sleep, or the striking of a clock in his reverie, but no thorough
impression is made on his mind. So in the case of the sinner; man may speak to the
outward ear, but God only speaks to his mind. When the sinner hears God's voice,
his ears are opened. God cries in his ear--Come forth;--then as if a peal of thunder
rang in his ear, he starts up in terror and trembling. Still he sees not the bow
of promise. He sees only that awful cloud of thunder and blackness. Sinking in terror,
he cries out,--God has spoken to my soul and how can I rest? Then if he can only
see that bow of promise, spanning the cross of Calvary, and seeming to spread its
wing of love over himself, then, O then, how he leaps up from the grave of his spiritual
death! He hears God saying to him, "Awake thou that sleepest;" and does
he rise? Yes, at once, and without delay, he puts forth the requisite activities
and comes into real life.
- 5. Of instruments, I need only say that God usually employs some third person,
of which we have a beautiful description in Ezekiel 37th.; the vision of the valley
of dry bones. No doubt this was intended to represent God's manner of calling men
out of the death of unbelief into the spiritual life of faith. When, as is there
described, God's voice, through His servants sounds all abroad, then His power is
IV. The reasons of this command which bids the sinner arise, next require our
- 1. As this death is a voluntary suicide, men would be to blame for it even if
they were unable to rise from it to life again. Yet if they lay under this absolute
inability, God could not require them to rise. He might hold them guilty for the
suicide, and yet not hold them guilty for not raising themselves to life again. The
latter would doubtless be the case if they had no power to bring themselves to life.
- 2. But the sinner has this power. His death in sin is a voluntary state of mind,
and is kept up by voluntary action. In fact so strong is God's appeal to the intelligence
and conscience of the sinner, that he has to exert himself to keep himself dead.
It often seems as if he would rise inspite of himself, like a cork pressed under
water, struggling to reach the surface. Some of you know this in your own experience.
How many of you have been almost persuaded to become Christians; the voice of God
rang in your ears, and its powerful appeals to your reason and conscience pressed
with mighty power upon your soul; His Spirit strove with you and you were scarcely
able to resist; almost you were persuaded to forego your sins and all their pleasures;
it might be said of you --"He is not far from the kingdom of God" -- but
you did not enter. You still held on to your beloved idols, and after them you would
go. In fact, it is so far from being true that men have no power to rise from spiritual
death, that they can scarcely summon power enough to keep themselves from rising.
They can scarcely resist the appeal which God makes to their hearts.
- 3. Every man affirms to himself that he ought to rise from this state of spiritual
death - ought to be and become a Christian. His own reason affirms to him that he
has no right to remain in a state of voluntary spiritual death. He knows that the
only reason why he does not rise at once out of this death is his own voluntary refusal
to do so. Consequently, the sinner who listens to these affirmations of his own intelligence
and conscience, can have no rational peace in his sins. Much of the stupid peace
which sinners do enjoy in this state, is afforded them by those perverted notions
of inability to which I have alluded. By the aid of these, the conscience relieves
itself of obligation and the sinner finds a torpid quiet in his sins for which the
real truth affords no justification whatever.
1. Sinners are the worst of suicides. During my life I have seen but one case of
physical suicide, nor would I wish to see another. I could never lose the impression
of awful horror made on my mind by the spectacle. It shocked the whole community.
It was indeed a most awful sight.
Yet what is physical suicide in its most awful form compared with destroying one's
There may be reasons which strongly urge a man to take his own life. There never
can be any good reasons for a man's destroying his own soul. A man may labor under
physical derangement, and under this influence may take utterly false views of things,
which may lead him to physical suicide; but that a man should destroy his own soul
-- what can be more shocking! How utterly inexcusable, especially after all God has
done to save the souls of lost sinners!
2. We may see in what sense we are dependent upon God's Spirit. It is in this sense
simply -- to induce him to do what he ought to do of himself. With no other light
than God has given to all men in His word, they ought to see their duty, and duty
being seen, they ought at once to do it. And yet they are dependent upon the light
of the Spirit. Why? Because they will not admit to their own minds the light of God's
word without the Spirit's extra aid, and because light seen is resisted.
Take a supposition. Suppose a man has made up his mind to commit murder. He reveals
his plan to his wife. She does her utmost to dissuade him from his purpose, but in
vain. He still goes on in his preparations to execute his plan. She thinks of a friend
who has such influence over her husband as may avail to save him. She rushes to him
for help. He is successful.
Now this is a supposable case. All this might in fact occur. But in such a case as
this, you cannot but see that though this man was dependent on his friend for his
salvation, yet that his very dependence was his fault. He was dependent, not in the
sense that he could not forbear to commit murder, but only in the sense that he would
not desist from his purpose, under any influence short of this. He would have committed
the murder but for the interposed influence of his friend.
So of the sinner. The Spirit's influence is needed only to make you do what you ought
to do without it. Hence, so far from being an excuse for your inaction, it rebukes
all inaction, and shows its damning guilt.
3. Hence the Spirit's influences are altogether gracious. They are in no sense a
matter of merit on our part, or even of claim on the ground of our inability.
4. The gift of the Spirit being a matter of grace may be withholden or withdrawn
at the divine option. You may expect the Spirit to leave you if you continue to resist
and abuse His agency.
5. Death in sin no more involves an inability to become holy than death to sin does
an inability to sin again. There is no proper inability in either case. The Christian
dead to sin, has the power to return like the dog to his vomit; the sinner dead in
sin, by an equally voluntary death, has the power to emerge from that stated death,
by the voluntary efforts of his own mind.
6. Our text makes its pungent and personal appeal to sinners in their sins. Addressing
you--all ye who are dead in sins, it cries--"Awake, awake, open your eyes and
behold the light of truth; put forth your own agency and activity; come forth from
that grave in which you have slept so long. And what do you say? Do you reply--Lord,
I hear Thy voice--Lord, I come--I come to Thee? Then come forth to light and life
But are you groping about after light? Or are you caviling and resisting? Do you
talk of being so dead that you have no power at all to rise? Remember, you are your
own murderer. You lie in your spiritual grave because you are resolved to have earthly
and not heavenly good for your portion. And now do you want the light of God upon
your sealed eyes? Open those eyes and welcome the light that shines from God upon
you. Feel your responsibility and meet it as becomes an accountable, immortal mind.
of easily misunderstood terms as defined by Mr. Finney himself.
Compiled by Katie Stewart
- Complacency, or Esteem: "Complacency, as a state of will or heart,
is only benevolence modified by the consideration or relation of right character
in the object of it. God, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and saints, in all ages, are
as virtuous in their self-denying and untiring labours to save the wicked, as they
are in their complacent love to the saints." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
VII). Also, "approbation of the character of its object. Complacency is
due only to the good and holy." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE
- Disinterested Benevolence: "By disinterested benevolence I do not
mean, that a person who is disinterested feels no interest in his object of pursuit,
but that he seeks the happiness of others for its own sake, and not for the sake
of its reaction on himself, in promoting his own happiness. He chooses to do good
because he rejoices in the happiness of others, and desires their happiness for its
own sake. God is purely and disinterestedly benevolent. He does not make His creatures
happy for the sake of thereby promoting His own happiness, but because He loves their
happiness and chooses it for its own sake. Not that He does not feel happy in promoting
the happiness of His creatures, but that He does not do it for the sake of His own
gratification." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE I).
- Divine Sovereignty: "The sovereignty of God consists in the independence
of his will, in consulting his own intelligence and discretion, in the selection
of his end, and the means of accomplishing it. In other words, the sovereignty of
God is nothing else than infinite benevolence directed by infinite knowledge."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXVI).
- Election: "That all of Adam's race, who are or ever will be saved,
were from eternity chosen by God to eternal salvation, through the sanctification
of their hearts by faith in Christ. In other words, they are chosen to salvation
by means of sanctification. Their salvation is the end- their sanctification is a
means. Both the end and the means are elected, appointed, chosen; the means as really
as the end, and for the sake of the end." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXIV).
- Entire Sanctification: "Sanctification may be entire in two senses:
(1.) In the sense of present, full obedience, or entire consecration to God; and,
(2.) In the sense of continued, abiding consecration or obedience to God. Entire
sanctification, when the terms are used in this sense, consists in being established,
confirmed, preserved, continued in a state of sanctification or of entire consecration
to God." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LVIII).
- Moral Agency: "Moral agency is universally a condition of moral obligation.
The attributes of moral agency are intellect, sensibility, and free will." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE III).
- Moral Depravity: "Moral depravity is the depravity of free-will,
not of the faculty itself, but of its free action. It consists in a violation of
moral law. Depravity of the will, as a faculty, is, or would be, physical, and not
moral depravity. It would be depravity of substance, and not of free, responsible
choice. Moral depravity is depravity of choice. It is a choice at variance with moral
law, moral right. It is synonymous with sin or sinfulness. It is moral depravity,
because it consists in a violation of moral law, and because it has moral character."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Human Reason: "the intuitive faculty or function of the intellect...
it is the faculty that intuits moral relations and affirms moral obligation to act
in conformity with perceived moral relations." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
- Retributive Justice: "Retributive justice consists in treating every
subject of government according to his character. It respects the intrinsic merit
or demerit of each individual, and deals with him accordingly." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE XXXIV).
- Total Depravity: "Moral depravity of the unregenerate is without
any mixture of moral goodness or virtue, that while they remain unregenerate, they
never in any instance, nor in any degree, exercise true love to God and to man."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Unbelief: "the soul's withholding confidence from truth and the God
of truth. The heart's rejection of evidence, and refusal to be influenced by it.
The will in the attitude of opposition to truth perceived, or evidence presented."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LV).
RELATED STUDY AID:
Index for "The
Oberlin Evangelist": Finney:
Voices of Philadelphia