||delphia > The Wants of Man and Their Supply by Charles G. Finney from "The Oberlin Evangelist"
The Wants of Man and Their Supply
Charles G. Finney
A Voice from the Philadelphian Church Age
by Charles Grandison Finney
Public Domain Text
Reformatted by Katie Stewart
from "The Oberlin Evangelist"
July 19, 1854
THE WANTS OF MAN AND THEIR SUPPLY
by the Rev. C. G. Finney
"He began to be in want."
Text.--Matt. 5:6: "Blessed
are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled."
The parable of the prodigal son is intended to illustrate the case of the sinner,
coming to himself, opening his eyes to his true condition, and feeling himself destitute,
empty, and wretched.
I. Man, in consciousness, is a wonderful being.
II. Man has also an intellectual nature.
III. Man has another side to his nature--the moral and spiritual department.
I. Man, as he stands revealed to himself in consciousness, is a wonderful being.
- 1. By the earliest teachings of consciousness he finds himself to be a duality,
consisting of body and soul. Farther revelations made in consciousness show him to
be in some respects a tri-unity. For example, he has three classes of mental attributes:
sensibility, intellect, and will. Still further, and yet more important in its bearings,
he finds himself a tri-unity, inasmuch as he has three sides to his nature; one related
to the material universe around him; another to all objects of thought and knowledge;
and still another, related to God and to duty. He has first a body, and through this,
peculiar relations to the world he lives in. He has appetites for food, and numerous
wants that terminate on the physical universe. These wants crave their appropriate
supplies, and cannot be satisfied with anything else. In the order of time, these
are earliest developed. They are few in number, that is, they may be; and those which
are real are so. This class alone cease at death. Yet while they exist, they must
- 2. Another fact deserving notice in reference to this class of wants is that
man immediately assumes the existence of the objects to which his physical wants
are correlated. The infant assumes this by instinct. There is no need that you should
prove to man that these objects exist. He assumes this, and has only to inquire where
they may be found. By a necessity of his nature he assumes their existence, and sets
himself forthwith to search for them.
II. In the next place, let it be noticed that man has also an intellectual
- 1. He is made capable of knowledge, and has also an intense desire to know. These
are real wants of his being. God has provided for their supply in the illimitable
ocean of truth which invests him on every side. God has also breathed into his soul
a spirit of inquiry, and acting out its deep impulses, he must inquire into the truth
and reason of things. It is curious to notice the difference between children and
other animals. If you had never seen an infant before, and were to study his developments
for the first time, you would be forcibly struck with these remarkable traits. The
little one begins to notice, and to look inquiringly almost as soon as it begins
to look at all. See him fix his eyes upon his little hands, as if he would ask, What
are these? He looks into his mother's eye as if he would ask a thousand questions,
long before he can utter a word. But you can find no such manifestations of thought
and inquiry in the kitten and the lamb. Give them enough to eat and scope for rest
and play, and they are satisfied. They will never seem to ask you the reasons of
things. Nay more, you cannot awaken within them a spirit of inquiry by any appliances
you can employ. It is not in them, and you cannot get it in.
- 2. But the infant is a philosopher by birth. He has intellectual wants lying
in his very nature, and he cannot be satisfied without their supply. He must know
the reasons of things. This is the true idea of philosophy. The lower animals will
lie down perfectly satisfied without knowing the reasons of things, or anything more
about things than just suffices to meet their animal wants. But man, even from infancy,
has wants pressing upon him in this direction, and he rouses himself like a lion
from his lair, to grasp the good his inner being craves in this direction. He cannot
be satisfied without. He finds himself related to the whole universe of matter, and
O!, what a world is opened to him for inquiry and knowledge! How naturally he looks
up and abroad! It is not easy for the horse or the ox to look up. Their eye is prone;
but man's is outward and upward. Man is made for inquiry.
- 3. It is this spirit of inquiry which leads so many young people to this place.
They come here to get knowledge. How they hang on our lips, and press on us for the
reasons of things, as if they could not be satisfied till they have penetrated to
the bottom of every subject.
- 4. Men assume that there is an explanation of everything. They assume that these
innate demands for knowledge were created, not to be denied--not to remain ungratified,
but to be gratified. Hence they grasp after knowledge, searching for it as for silver,
and as if they deemed it more to be desired than gold, yea, than much fine gold.
What young man or young woman has not felt such curiosity excited, as to extort the
cry--I must know: I must find out the facts on this subject, and the reasons of the
III. Thirdly, man has yet another side to his nature--the moral and spiritual
department, correlated to God, to his attributes and law, and to great questions
of duty and destiny.
- 1. Man learns from consciousness that he has such a side to his being--such a
department in his nature. Hence he inquires after God. He raises questions about
right and wrong, and asks to know the nature of virtue and vice. Often he finds in
himself a great uneasiness of which he cannot well difine the cause. It puts him
upon pressing these inquiries into his responsibilities and his mission in this state
of his existence.
- 2. Let it now be especially observed that man instinctively assumes the existence
of those things which stand related to each of these three sides of his nature. The
infant begins to feel after his food with no thought of question as to the fact of
there being food provided for his wants. When intelligence opens, the same assumption
is made, that there are verities to be known, and the reasons why these things are
so rather than otherwise. In like manner, when the eyes of the moral man begin to
open, he assumes his own immortality, and assumes also the existence of a God. This
is, indeed, the true account of his knowledge of this truth. Some have supposed that
the idea of God in the human mind is wholly a thing of education. It is so in the
same sense in which much of our intellectual knowledge is. There are many things
about God which we need to learn from his word and from his works. But no man needs
to have it demonstrated to him that there is a God, any more than a child needs to
have it proved that there is food provided for him in the physical world, or the
adult, that there are things to be known. The great cardinal truths pertaining to
the existence of God, accountability, and duty, are assumed as readily and surely
as men assume that there are truths correlated to their intelligence, or supplies
in nature for their animal wants. It is of no use to say that some men are atheists
and therefore this doctrine cannot be true. Some men have, by speculation, befooled
themselves into the belief (so they say) that there is no physical universe. But
they believe in its existence none the less, and crave the good it proffers, and
cannot live without it. Each one of these philosophers, although he may deny the
existence of any physical universe, and declare there is no such thing as matter,
yet expects his dinner at the appointed hour, and needs it for his comfort full as
much as if he had not denied the existence of any such thing. So these atheists only
know there is a God, although they say, "in their heart," there is none.
- 3. It is vastly difficult for any man to feel at ease while he is resisting the
constitutional demands of any department of his nature. "Alas!" said a
young and ambitious lawyer, who was driving his business and his books and his briefs,--"alas!"
said he, "what is the matter with me! I try to study, and cannot. I try to be
happy, but I am not. What do I want? Wherein is the lack that, with all I have, yet
leaves me so wretched?"
It was this strain of inquiry which led him to see that he needed God for his
portion, and could not find a paradise without Him.
- 4. Men need not wait for the proof of their immortality, or for proof of the
necessity of virtue as a means for happiness. They know these things by a spontaneity
of their moral nature. They know that holiness is a great want of their moral nature.
How plainly do they see and know that they need such a being as God, to love and
to obey, to trust and to adore!
I appeal to these students. If you have cultivated the habit of self-study, you
have learned that you cannot find out yourself without finding God. Tracing out the
problems of your own existence reveals to you your Maker. An irresistible conviction
will force itself upon you that there is a God, and that you have everything to hope
from his favor, and everything to fear from his frown. A view of yourself and of
your own spiritual wants will show you that nothing else can supply your need but
God. Have you not already found that the more you study, and the more you cultivate
the habit of reflection, the less you can make yourself happy without God? Most of
you find it impossible to enjoy yourselves in sin as you were wont to do before you
gave yourselves to thought and reflection. The higher you ascend in the grade of
moral and intellectual culture, the more intensely will you feel the want of moral
culture and moral enjoyments. It is impossible for you to rise as a man without feeling
a growing demand for the presence and influence of God, as your Father and Friend.
- 5. Commonly, as the human mind opens to surrounding objects, and as its powers
successively develop themselves, attention is first turned to physical wants, and
next to intellectual. In one or the other of these pursuits, or in both, man is wont
to become so engrossed as mainly to overlook the moral side of his nature. Yet the
wants of his moral being will develop themselves, often in such a way at first as
to make him exceedingly wretched, while yet he does not see what ails him, and quite
fails to comprehend the reason of his unhappiness. No amount of knowledge or purely
mental culture can make him happy. On the contrary, the more he knows the more he
wants, and the more intensely dissatisfied he becomes with himself.
The objects that supply his bodily wants are at hand. He meets them on every side,
and in abundance. So also, pushing his efforts for this end, he finds ample materials
for supplying his intellectual wants. He finds enough for mind to feed upon--enough
to exercise his faculties, and interest him in studious thought and earnest research.
- 6. So also with his moral and spiritual wants. These have their correlated objects.
God is all around him. In the kingdoms of nature he sees the handiwork of an intelligent,
designing Maker; and in the ways of providence, he cannot help seeing the agency
of a kind and beneficent Father. As his natural eye gives him the material world,
so his spiritual eye would give him God in everything--were it not for the blinding
influence of a bad heart. This fearfully darkens his vision to those great spiritual
truths he so much needs to know. While he might be advancing hour by hour in the
knowledge of God and of spiritual truth, going down into the great depths of sympathy
with God, he finds instead a fearful conflict between his depraved impulses and his
conscience, under the influence of which, truth gains but a slow access to his soul.
Moreover, the moral side of his nature being latest developed, he often becomes so
engrossed with sensual or intellectual pursuits, that he scarce has any power left
for effective thought upon moral subjects. How fearfully some give way to worldly
interests and claims, and others also to intellectual pursuits, some of you must
know but too well.
- 7. Yet those moral wants you have neglected will some day arise and make their
demands heard. It is well if they assume this urgency while yet their supply is possible.
The prodigal son was a case of one who felt the pressure of these wants. He said--"I
must go home to my father." David entered on record his testimony--"My
soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for thee in a dry and thirsty land where
no water is." "As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my
soul after thee, O God. My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God; when shall
I come and appear before God?" The mind thus becomes deeply conscious of cravings
and aspirations which have God for their object, and which nothing but God can supply.
If you examine the nature of these wants, you find them in part social. The mind
craves communion with other minds. It thirsts for society, and wisely concludes that
no society, no fellowship with other minds, can in any wise compare with communion
with God. Perhaps he has tried the fellowship of mortals, and found it still unsatisfying.
Hence he craves the richer, far richer, fellowship with the Father and with his Son
Jesus Christ. He longs to rise above communion with the finite to hold communion
with the Infinite. Weary of drawing instructions from erring man, he thirsts for
the pure fountains of knowledge as they flow from the Infinite Intelligence. Conscious
that he must himself exist forever, he craves the acquaintance and sympathy of his
eternal Maker and Father. As he comes to know something of his great and glorious
Friend, he feels that he needs an eternity in which to study God in his multiform
and wonderful works and ways. And when he comes to breathe the atmosphere of purity
which invests the glorious Presence, how intensely does he long for deliverance from
all moral corruption! O, how does his soul thirst for an ever-growing conformity
to God! The language of holy men on the sacred page is exceedingly strong on these
points, as we may see from David's Psalms and Paul's Epistles. The latter declares,
"Yea, doubtless, I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge
of Christ Jesus, my Lord; for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do
count them but dung, that I may win Christ and be found in Him." No one can
read these strong utterances of feeling, desire, and purpose, without seeing that
the mind may develop itself with amazing intensity in this direction. There is scope
and occasion for its utmost energies and aspirations.
1. He must be wretched who neglects to supply his physical wants. He must pay the
stem penalty of his neglect, as he will soon learn to his sorrow. Each organ of the
body needs its appropriate development, exercise, and nutriment. He who should disregard
the laws of his constitution in respect to the proper supply of these constitutional
demands will find ere long that the penalty of such neglect is fearful and sure.
In like manner, if he stultifies himself and takes no pains to inquire after truth
and knowledge; if he never troubles himself to know, and denies to his intellectual
nature all its just demands, he must be far more wretched than a brute can be. But
let a man neglect all spiritual culture and training, he becomes far more wretched
still. Physical demands cease with the death of the body; the spiritual must continue
during his entire existence, stretching on and still on forever, and probably forever
2. How cruel for a man to consider himself as merely a brute. Giving himself up to
a grovelling life, regardless of his spiritual nature and even of his intellectual
nature also, what a wretch he must be! Ye, who are students, know how to pity, and
how to despise him! You can understand what he loses, for you know what satisfaction
is taken in finding out the reasons of things. But see the mere animal who never
looks abroad, never raises an inquiry. Why does he not set himself to study and think?
Why not cast his thoughts abroad for knowledge? Why does he live a fool and a dunce,
when he might be a man?
3. How cruel to treat anybody else as a mere animal! This is the most cruel thing
you can do towards a fellow-being. You deny the existence of those great qualities
which constitute him a man. You feed him as you would a horse, withholding all aliment
for his intelligent mind. You feed him and your horse, each for the same reason;--you
want to keep him in working order to serve your selfish purposes. You regard all
knowledge beyond what your horse needs as only so much injury to him. Holding your
slave as his master, do you send him to school? Never. Do you teach him to read?
Never. Do you provide him any means of instruction? No. In the same manner you shut
down the gate upon his moral nature. You close up the windows of his soul and keep
it as utterly dark as possible to the light of heaven. You tighten the thumb-screws
down on every inlet of knowledge, so that he shall never know that he is anything
more or other than a beast! Is not this horrible? What then shall we say of the man
who does just this upon himself!
4. The more a man develops his intellectual faculties, yet neglects moral culture,
the more miserable he becomes. It is striking to see how wretched the most highly
cultivated men become. During all the latter years of his life, Daniel Webster was
never seen sober, but he was wretched. While in his senses, his mind was deep in
sorrow. Look in upon Congress and see there the great men of our land and of other
lands; not a man of them is happy without piety and sound moral culture. Go and ask
Byron if his gigantic mind, and almost superhuman genius, made him an angel of bliss.
Ask him if he found this world a paradise. Perhaps no man ever cursed his fellow-beings
more intensely, or enjoyed less in their society, than he. All such men, with high
intellectual culture, make themselves wretched because they leave their moral powers
in a state of utter wreck and distortion. There is no escape from this result. High
intellectual culture must inevitably develop the idea and the claims of God. Let
them turn their inquiries which way they will, they find God, and must feel more
or less convicted of obligation to love and obey them. Repelling these obligations,
it is impossible that they can be otherwise than wretched. I alluded to the case
of a young lawyer who asked--"What makes me so unhappy? I feel myself thoroughly
wretched, and surely I can see no reason for it." The secret was this. All his
life long he had neglected God. His studies had more and more brought God to view,
and his sensibilities, under the action of conscience, had become exceedingly acute.
How could he be otherwise than wretched? He might not see the reason of his unhappy
state; yet if he had well considered the laws of his moral nature, he would have
found the reason lying there. Many of you begin to find the same results in your
experience, and you must realize them more and more if you remain alienated in heart
from God while yet your intelligence is more and more revealing God and his rightful
claims on your heart.
5. Neglecters of God are not well aware either of the cause or the degree of their
wretchedness. The wants of their physical nature are all met. They are fed and clad,
and have every comfort that their physical system craves. Their social wants too
are met. They have friends and society. They have also cultivated taste and any desired
amount of objects for its gratification. There is a library and books in plenty.
There are works of art from the masters in every profession. What more could they
need? Yet they are wretched. What is the matter? How many thousand times has this
inquiry been made--What can be the matter with me? I have everything heart can wish,
or the eye desire; books, teachers, unbounded sources of information, yet I am unhappy;
what does ail me?
I can tell you what. There is another side of your nature, more important than all
the rest, and more craving, yet you shut off all its demands, and deny its claims.
You have a conscience, yet you resist its monitions. You have desires, correlated
to God, yet you deny them their appropriate gratification. No fact is more ennobling
to human nature than this, that man has desires correlated to God even as he has
to his fellow men, so that he can no more be happy without God than he can be without
the sympathy and society of man. We all understand this law of human nature. We see
man thirsting for companionship with his fellow man, longing for society, and we
cannot fail to see and to say that man is so constructed in his very nature that
he must have society. Deprive him of it and he is wretched. Now the striking fact
is that man has an equally strong demand in his very constitution for sympathy and
fellowship with God. Unless this too be supplied, he cannot be happy.
Suppose you were to meet a man as ignorant of his physical wants as most men are
of their spiritual. He does not understand that he must have food for his stomach;
clothes for his body; heat to warm him in the winter frosts. Ah! you would see the
reason of his misery. Strange he does not know enough to supply his wants!
Or suppose him equally ignorant of his intellectual wants. He starves his soul of
knowledge. Lean and barren, he seems to be panting for something higher and better,
yet unaware both of the nature of this craving and of the proper source of supply.
How easily could you tell him that "for the soul to be without knowledge is
So there is also a moral side to man's nature, and he can never be supremely happy
till he becomes morally perfect. He struggles to get out of his moral agony; feels
as if he should die if he cannot get out from under this moral load. Who has not
felt this loathing of his abominable self, because he did not and would not search
after God! Never did any man long for food or water more intensely than the man,
who suffers himself to attend to the inner voice of his moral being, thirsts after
6. Blessed are they who do hunger and thirst, for when they cry unto God to be filled,
He will fill them. Let them cry unto God for bread and water; does He not hear their
cry? Ah, verily,--He hears the young ravens when they cry, and the young lions when
they roar and suffer hunger; and the infant voices of his intelligent creation are
not less sure to come up into his ear. Does He not love to supply these wants which
grow out of the nature He gave them? Indeed He does. He spread out the fair earth
and its rich fields of lovely green. He meant to fill the earth with supplies for
man and beast, yea, for every living thing.
In like manner, of the mental wants of his intelligent creatures. He loves to meet
these with open hand;--loves to excite the spirit of inquiry and then supply to us
the means of gratification. The things we need to know He loves to teach us.
But our moral and spiritual wants, he is infinitely more ready to supply. Does not
your inner heart say,--verily, this must be so? It is so. No sooner does the soul
go forth after God, than He is near--ineffably near. It is wonderful to see how soon
God is found when once the soul begins in true earnest to inquire after Him. Is it
not striking that God should so love to reveal himself and should take such pains
to insinuate himself into our confidence, and, as it were, work himself into universal
communion and contact with our whole souls, so as to fill every moral want of our
being? In view of this desire and effort on his part, and in view also of the means
provided and promised for this result, we can see why God should command us to "be
filled with the Spirit." Such infinite supplies provided and such earnest desire
manifested on the part of God to have us appropriate these supplies to their utmost
extent;--it is as if an ocean of water were suspended above our heads, and we have
only to lift the valve and let down these ocean waters upon our needy souls. There
is the promise, let down like a silken cord; what have we to do but to take hold
of it and pull down infinite blessings!
7. Until man feels his spiritual wants, he will resist all attempts you may make
to bring him to God. Hence the necessity of touching the mainspring of danger,--of
arousing his fears, and developing his moral sensibility. Hence the need of appeals
to his conscience and to his sense of danger. Until you can make his moral nature
sensitive and rouse up his dark and dead soul to moral feelings, there is no hope
for him. But when you can touch this side of his nature and quicken him to feeling
and even to agony under the lash of conscience, and make him really appreciate his
wants, then he begins to feel his wants, and to ask how they can be met and supplied.
This is the true secret of promoting revivals. You must go around among these dark,
insensible minds and pour in light upon this side of their nature. You must wake
them up to earnest thought--you must rouse up the man's conscience and soul till
he shall cry out after God and his salvation.
I always have strong hopes of students; for although they sometimes get wise in their
own conceits, and sometimes render themselves ridiculous by their low ambition, yet,
taken as a class, there is great hope of them. If suitable means are used, very many
of them will be converted. Probably no class of students ever passed through college,
the right means of instruction and influence being used with them, without deeply
feeling the power of truth, and many of them becoming converted. They must, almost
of necessity, feel every blow that is struck; every truth, brought home clearly through
their intelligence upon their conscience, wakens a response; and impels the soul
to cry out after God. Hence I have strong hopes of you. Yet many of you, I know,
are not now converted. God grant you may be soon! I hope the hearts of this Christian
people will reach your case in strong effectual prayer. You can indeed resist every
effort made to save you--if you will; you can reject Christ, however earnest his
entreaties or tender his loving kindness; but you cannot change your nature so that
it shall be happy in rebellion against God and his truth; you cannot hush the rebukes
of an abused conscience forever; these wants of your inner being must be met, or
what will become of you? Your bodily wants will soon cease; and you need not care
much therefore for them. Your intellectual pleasures also must ere long come to an
end; for how can they pass over with you into the realm of outer darkness where are
weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth? Doubtless that is a state not of light,
and truth, and joy in pursuit of knowledge; but of delusions, and errors, and of
knowledge agonizing its possessor with keenest pangs forever and ever! I do not believe
sinners will have any intellectual pleasure in hell. It cannot be possible that they
will enjoy any knowledge they will have there, or any means of attaining knowledge.
The very idea is precluded by the relations that conscience must sustain to everything
they know. All possible knowledge must have some bearing upon God, duty, and their
moral relations, and hence must serve only to harrow up their sensibilities with
keenest anguish. O how will they gnash their teeth and gnaw their tongues in direst
woe forever! "There is no peace," saith my God, "to the wicked!"
More and more deeply dissatisfied to all eternity! Execrating and cursing their insane
selves for the madness of rejecting God and his gospel when they might have had both.
Now it only remains for them to wail in bitterness and anguish, lifting up their
unavailing cries, to which the thunders of Jehovah's curse respond in everlasting
echoes--"Woe to the wicked; it shall be ill with him; for the reward of his
hands shall be given him."
O sinner, will you yet press on into the very jaws of such a hell!
of easily misunderstood terms as defined by Mr. Finney himself.
Compiled by Katie Stewart
- Complacency, or Esteem: "Complacency, as a state of will or heart,
is only benevolence modified by the consideration or relation of right character
in the object of it. God, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and saints, in all ages, are
as virtuous in their self-denying and untiring labours to save the wicked, as they
are in their complacent love to the saints." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
VII). Also, "approbation of the character of its object. Complacency is
due only to the good and holy." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE
- Disinterested Benevolence: "By disinterested benevolence I do not
mean, that a person who is disinterested feels no interest in his object of pursuit,
but that he seeks the happiness of others for its own sake, and not for the sake
of its reaction on himself, in promoting his own happiness. He chooses to do good
because he rejoices in the happiness of others, and desires their happiness for its
own sake. God is purely and disinterestedly benevolent. He does not make His creatures
happy for the sake of thereby promoting His own happiness, but because He loves their
happiness and chooses it for its own sake. Not that He does not feel happy in promoting
the happiness of His creatures, but that He does not do it for the sake of His own
gratification." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE I).
- Divine Sovereignty: "The sovereignty of God consists in the independence
of his will, in consulting his own intelligence and discretion, in the selection
of his end, and the means of accomplishing it. In other words, the sovereignty of
God is nothing else than infinite benevolence directed by infinite knowledge."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXVI).
- Election: "That all of Adam's race, who are or ever will be saved,
were from eternity chosen by God to eternal salvation, through the sanctification
of their hearts by faith in Christ. In other words, they are chosen to salvation
by means of sanctification. Their salvation is the end- their sanctification is a
means. Both the end and the means are elected, appointed, chosen; the means as really
as the end, and for the sake of the end." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXIV).
- Entire Sanctification: "Sanctification may be entire in two senses:
(1.) In the sense of present, full obedience, or entire consecration to God; and,
(2.) In the sense of continued, abiding consecration or obedience to God. Entire
sanctification, when the terms are used in this sense, consists in being established,
confirmed, preserved, continued in a state of sanctification or of entire consecration
to God." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LVIII).
- Moral Agency: "Moral agency is universally a condition of moral obligation.
The attributes of moral agency are intellect, sensibility, and free will." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE III).
- Moral Depravity: "Moral depravity is the depravity of free-will,
not of the faculty itself, but of its free action. It consists in a violation of
moral law. Depravity of the will, as a faculty, is, or would be, physical, and not
moral depravity. It would be depravity of substance, and not of free, responsible
choice. Moral depravity is depravity of choice. It is a choice at variance with moral
law, moral right. It is synonymous with sin or sinfulness. It is moral depravity,
because it consists in a violation of moral law, and because it has moral character."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Human Reason: "the intuitive faculty or function of the intellect...
it is the faculty that intuits moral relations and affirms moral obligation to act
in conformity with perceived moral relations." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
- Retributive Justice: "Retributive justice consists in treating every
subject of government according to his character. It respects the intrinsic merit
or demerit of each individual, and deals with him accordingly." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE XXXIV).
- Total Depravity: "Moral depravity of the unregenerate is without
any mixture of moral goodness or virtue, that while they remain unregenerate, they
never in any instance, nor in any degree, exercise true love to God and to man."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Unbelief: "the soul's withholding confidence from truth and the God
of truth. The heart's rejection of evidence, and refusal to be influenced by it.
The will in the attitude of opposition to truth perceived, or evidence presented."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LV).
RELATED STUDY AID:
Index for "The
Oberlin Evangelist": Finney:
Voices of Philadelphia